Where Does The Identity Of Female Ascetics Lie In Hinduism?

The phenomenon of asceticism in Hinduism is often regarded as the essential feature of the religious doctrine. Contrary to popular belief asceticism and religion are not synonymous with each other. The ascetic tradition is an embodiment in a person rather than a doctrine. Interestingly, this embodiment is understood as a manifestation solely in males and not in females. The discourse on asceticism in Hinduism allows both sexes to follow the path to attain Moksha or liberation. However, the difference becomes obvious when a female ascetic is given the status of an ‘outsider’ and the male that of an ‘insider’.

The non-conforming, non-familial, non-normative female ascetic thus, remains an invisible being in an overwhelming masculine world of asceticism, where women fight taboos to create a space for the woman as an ascetic.

THE NON-CONFORMING, NON-FAMILIAL, NON-NORMATIVE FEMALE ASCETIC THUS, REMAINS AN INVISIBLE BEING.

Since the beginning of the 21st century, there have been debates amongst scholars on the topic of alternative subjectivities regarding which are the notion of revolutionary identities in mainstream discourse. Female asceticism is one such ‘rebel’ identity. However, the question which may arise in many ascetics as well as non-ascetics is — ‘Can a woman be a legitimate ascetic?‘ Yes, she can, but in terms of orthodox religious doctrine, she can become an ascetic only if her renunciation of the domestic realm is accomplished.

In simpler words, Hinduism has always been focused around the upper castes, the Brahmins, and to some extent on the Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. The contradictory nature of Hinduism reveals its misogynous inclinations by limiting renunciation to the Dwij or the twice born man. It is important to note, that the twice born man has the freedom of choice between two modes of life — the householder, and the renouncer. But, for women, only a single mode of life has been prescribed — marital life.

Such a mechanism of exclusion in Brahmanic orthodoxy operates on the principle of menstruation — perceived as ‘impure’ and ‘sickly’ by Vedic literature. As a result, women are believed to be innately lacking the ‘natural’ tendency towards achieving Dharma(religious duty), and so they must follow a series of rituals and ceremonies in order to gravitate towards a ‘state of purity’. Such notions of purity and pollution form the foundations of gender relations in the ascetic tradition, thereby making the female ascetic invisible in society.

THIS MECHANISM OF EXCLUSION IN BRAHMANIC ORTHODOXY OPERATES ON THE PRINCIPLE OF MENSTRUATION — PERCEIVED AS ‘IMPURE’ AND ‘SICKLY’.

With so much patriarchal discrimination in the ascetic tradition, I wonder, why do women become ascetics in the first place? Or what kind of women may become ascetics? Sociology and Anthropology suggests that women adopt an ascetic lifestyle upon becoming widows, in order to escape the social stigma attached to widowhood imposed by sectarian chauvinism. Others believe asceticism is a path adopted by these women to escape the inevitable condition of beggary after the death of their immediate family members, most importantly, their husbands.

There are some young renouncers who are submitted the responsibility of the care of a group of pious women since their families cannot afford dowries. In such situations, young girls meet their gurus in ashrams, who then initiate unmarried young girls into their sect and take them under her/his service.

For a woman to become an ascetic, is to question the ascribed cultural norms laid out for them. Attempting to step outside this normative structure gives the female ascetic the status of an ‘outsider’. This is because she has not only chosen to adopt a certain way of life, a life which is primarily prescribed for males, but has also chosen to be critical of, and to question the existing social order. This ‘deviance’ in ascribed gender norms (as Brahmanical orthodoxy would call it), is perceived as a threat to the existing power structure which gives privilege to male ascetics. As a result, there is no surprise that male ascetics would protest against women being ascetics at all.

When it comes to asceticism, the initiation ceremonies mark the separation of a woman from her householder duties. These initiation rituals release women from their previous social identity, which at times can involve shedding of various identity markers that help people to identify one’s social role and status. Feminist artist and activist Sheba Chhachhi in her work ‘Ganga’s Daughters’ (1990) traces the transformation of ordinary women into ascetics as they part with their clothes, hair, name, caste, and familial relations. In search of Moksha, these women embrace their new ascetic identity. An identity, in which they are no longer anybody’s parents, sisters, or wives.

IN SEARCH OF MOKSHA, THESE WOMEN EMBRACE THEIR NEW ASCETIC IDENTITY – IN WHICH THEY ARE NO LONGER ANYBODY’S PARENTS, SISTERS, OR WIVES.

That being said, the life of a woman ascetic in Hinduism is under appreciated, and holds a complicated position. As they step out of the orthodox Brahmanical system of surveillance into newly formed identities as ascetics, women are perceived as beings who have conquered their right to be granted individual freedom. It’s almost as if women have been reincarnated into different beings after performing the last sacrifice of their prior identities.

As a result of these women’s sense of self, their new found identity can be understood as a way of creating a new space within the folds of the Hindu religious doctrine. It is truly extraordinary to see how these women courageously defy traditional gender norms, and carry a will force to raise themselves to the level of their male ascetic counterparts.

Article published on: https://feminisminindia.com/2017/05/11/identity-female-ascetics-hinduism/

Saviya Lopez| Menstrual Art?

Messages Image(722031428)

The year 2015 has witnessed an extraordinary focus on the menstruation of women in social media. For instance, the photo-sharing website/app – Instagram got itself tangled in a controversy of events when it decided to remove photographs of artist and poet – Rupi Kaur, who had posted images of herself lying on a bed with a period stain. This ‘censorship’ of menstruation photos has resulted in a wider process of encouraging the taboo around the word ‘period’. However, after the artist challenged the removal of the image, it was restored back on the website.

In this day and age, there is a dire need for people to transform from a more passive to an active audience. Furthermore, there is a need to demystify the aura around menstruation, and recognise the agony which is faced by women from around the globe. Artist Saviya Lopez, who is currently exhibiting her work at the Clark House initiative, a Mumbai based gallery, has targeted this mystification around the politics of menstruation. Her work, which is being displayed as a part of a larger exhibition titled ‘River with a Thousand Holes’, addresses the link between the status of women and the degradation of the environment.

In the image above, one sees that the bloodied words speak out against the discrepancy between what is real and what is being represented in the advertiser’s practice of showcasing blue instead of red on sanitary napkins. As the artist beautifully captures the parallels of dual realities of menstruation, the exhibition has strong political overtones of ecofeminism. Eco feminist epistemology forms a link between ecology and feminism. Furthermore, the approach shows how women and nature have a strong commonality, thus are united through their shared history of oppression by a patriarchal society.

However, the issues surrounding menstruation lead me to question : how should one fight for women’s rights if the category of ‘women’ is not homogenous? Unlike previous ideologies, which for the longest period of time have looked at women as a uniform category, today’s feminist ideologies go beyond homogeneity and move towards heterogeneity. There has  been a significant shift in feminist movements, which has paved the way to give enough room to acknowledge each individual’s subjective bodily experiences. Women are certainly different from men, but even more from one another. Thus, an upper caste Brahminical woman will certainly have different notions and perceptions regarding menstruation compared to a lower caste Dalit woman.

As the topic of menstruation seeps into the work of women artists, women have started to be even more vocal about confronting their subordinate status in society. Art, as I feel, is being used as a medium to convey strong ideas that have deliberately been silenced by androcentricity. After looking at a work of art, one tends to converse or write about it in order to share one’s thoughts with a wider audience…..resulting in a large encompassing process of social change, big or small.